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Quechua / Amyra Resources

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Senior Member
Joined 3693 days ago

502 posts - 1093 votes 
Studies: German

 Message 1 of 2
05 May 2020 at 12:46am | IP Logged 
During the period from February 2020 through May 2020, I conducted a complete revision to the twenty-eight (28) lists of resources which I had posted on the LLORG during the previous three-year period. As revising these types of documents directly on the LLORG in the “Edit Mode” is fraught with difficulties, I removed their contents from the LLORG, stored them on my computer, and completed the revisions. During the revision process an event occurred which prevented me from reposting the contents to their original files and, as a contingency measure, I have posted them here on the HTLAL in the anticipation that either the Administrator or the Moderators of the LLORG will copy/paste them to the LLORG. - Speakeasy



Quechua People
Quechua people or Quecha people, may refer to any of the indigenous people of South America who speak the Quechua languages, which originated among the indigenous people of Peru. Although most Quechua speakers are native to the country of origin, there are some significant populations living in Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Argentina. The most common Quechua dialect is Southern Quechua. The Kichwa people of Ecuador speak the Kichwa dialect; in Colombia, the Inga people speak Inga Kichwa. The Quechua word for a Quechua speaker is runa or nuna ("person"); the plural is runakuna or nunakuna ("people").
Some historical Quechua people are:
• The Chanka people, who lived in the Huancavelica, Ayacucho, and Apurímac regions of Peru.
• The Huanca people of the Junín Region of Peru, who spoke Quechua before the Incas did.
• The Inca, who established the largest empire of the pre-Columbian era.
• The Chincha, an extinct merchant kingdom of the Ica Region of Peru.
• The Qolla who inhabited the Potosi Potosi, Oruro, and La Paz departments of Bolivia.
• The Cañari of Ecuador, who adopted the Quechua language from the Inca.

Quechuan Languages
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Peruvian Andes and highlands of South America. Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers. Approximately 25% (7.7 million) of Peruvians speak a Quechuan language. It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language family of the Inca Empire. The Spaniards encouraged its use, so Quechua ultimately survived and variants are still widely spoken today, being the co-official language of many regions and the second most spoken language in Peru.

Quechuan Dialects
Ethnologue lists 45 varieties of Quechuan, divided into two groups: Central and Peripheral. They are listed as separate languages due to non-intelligibility among them. There is no consensus on what constitutes a standard.
Deinonysus wrote:
… The Quechuan languages are grouped into four groups: Quechua I, II-A, II-B, and II-C. "Kichua" is one of several II-B languages, and I think that Runasimi is a general endonym for Quechua; I'm not sure if it refers to any specific Quechuan language(s). The de facto standard Quechua that is taught to foreigners is Quechua II-C (Southern Quechua), which includes Cusco and Bolivian Quechua...
Quechua Script / Writing System
The [color=#0000FF">Quechua alphabet[/color"> is based on the Latin alphabet. It is used to write the Quechuan languages. Example (please refer to the linked article for more details):
[attachment=0]Quechua Orthgraphy (partial).JPG[/attachment]
See also [color=#0000FF">Ayacucho Quechua alphabet and pronunciation - Omniglot[/color">

Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua
The Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua (AMLQ, Highest Academy of the Quechua Language; Quechua: Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur) is a private institution in Cusco, founded in 1990, concerned with the "purity" of Quechua. The AMLQ takes the point of view that there is only one single Quechua language and that the present Quechua of the city of Cusco, with all its regional peculiarities (and not any intermediate form like Southern Quechua) should be the official standard for all Quechua; it uses the term "Inka Quechua" (quechua inka or inka qheswa) to refer to present-day Cusco Quechua. The AMLQ vehemently promotes the old Quechua alphabet established by the Peruvian government in 1975, which corresponds mostly to the current alphabet fixed in 1985, but by contrast contains the five vowels a, e, i, o, u.

The AMLQ refers to a law (No 25260) passed by the Peruvian Congress on June 6, 1990, establishing a Quechua language academy in the city of Cusco. However, it gets almost no money at all from the State, and because its opinions on orthography are counter to those of the Peruvian Education Ministry and almost all linguists and professionals working in Quechua education, the Academy has had little real involvement in this.

For a number of reasons, the AMLQ has generally hostile and very poor relationships with most linguists working on Quechua, who have often heavily criticised its approach.


Quechua Courses, Supplements, etc.

Curso de lingua Quechua: Nivel Basico -
From Chile in Spanish base.

Curso practico Quechua. 40 lecciones Linguistica (Libro con CD) (20100 by Mario Mejia Huaman- La Pampa

Imanalla: An Introduction to Kechwa – Open Educational Resources – University of Kansas

Introduction to Quechua: Language of the Andes (2nd ed., 2010), 412 pages, by Judith Noble and Jaime Lacasa - Dog Ear Publishing

Introduction to Spoken Bolivian Quechua (1971), 449 pages, by Garland D. Bills, Bernardo Vallejo C., Rudolph C. Troike – University of Texas Press
Given the period during which this course was developed, it is highly likely that the audio-lingual method was employed. The Indiana University’s CeLT Recorded Sound Archives website seems have a set of the recordings (see link below, under the section “Miscellaneous”). Alas, access is restricted!

Kawsay Vida: A Multimedia Quechua Course for Beginners and Beyond (2014), 224 pages by Rosaleen Howard - University of Texas Press

Método de Quechua. Runasimi (1990), 334 pages, by Marcelo N. Grondin - Los amigos del Libro

Parlons quechua: La langue du Cuzco (1997), 208 pages, by César Itier- Editions L'Harmattan
Parlons Quechua CD

Quechua Boliviano Curso Elemental Tercera (1999), 215 pages, by Lara Luis and Pena Luis - Los Amigos del Libro

Quechua, manual de enseñanza (con 2 CD) (4th ed., 2016) by Soto Ruiz, Clodoaldo- Instituto de Estudios Peruanos

Rimashun kichwapi (Hablemos en quechua: Una introducción al quechua cajamarquino) - From

Spoken Cuzco Quechua, Books I and II (1967), by Donald F SolaÌ - Cornell University (ERIC website: PDF pending restoration)
This two-volume course is out-of-print and the PDF versions referenced on the ERIC website are pending restoration. I have listed this course owing to its description which, taking into consideration the period during which it was developed, suggests that the audio-lingual method was used. It is quite possible that Cornell University has an archived copy of the text and the original audio recordings which, given the method of instruction, would be quite substantial.
guyome wrote:
Just wanted to mention that three similar Quechua courses were produced at the same time: the one you link to above (for Cuzco Quechua), one for Ayacucho Quechua, and another for Cochabamba Quechua. There were also readers for each one of them I believe, at least two are available at Cochabamba Reader, Ayacucho Reader. An English-Quechua dictionary was also written to accompany the courses, with words of all three dialects.
The courses are not available at ERIC but can be found easily elsewhere…

Quechua Schools, Homestays, etc.

Learn Quechua – Quechua School and Homestay

Quechua Phrase Books, Language Guides, etc.

DLI Quechua Language Survival Kit

Lonely Planet Quechua Phrasebook & Dictionary

Quechua Course - Travelers

Quechua Grammars and Related Materials

Aoristo Quechua: 99 runasimi wirpa (Quechua Grammar no.4) (2014), 270 pages, by Jaime Salazar – Independently published

El Verbo En El Quechua De Chiquián: Una Descripción Exhaustiva (2012) by Pompeyo Yábar-dextre

Fonetica Morfologia Quechua Runasimi Academia (1998) by Davila Pezua Domingo - Municipalidad Distrital de Wanchaq

Grammar of Huallaga (Huanuco) Quechua (1989) by David John Weber - University of California

Gramatica Kechwa - Runasimi allin rimay yachay (1973) by César A. Guardia Mayorga - Ediciones Los Andes Lima

Grammar of Yauyos Quechua (2017) by Aviva Shimelman - Language Science Press

Learning to Construct Verbs in Navajo and Quechua (2002), 32 pages, by Ellen Courtney et al - Spencer Foundation (ERIC website)

Mixed Categories: Nominalizations In Quechua (1988), 304 pages, by C. Lefebvre and P.C. Muysken - Springer

Quechua Expressions of Stance and Deixis (2015), 326 pages, by Marilyn S. Manley (edt) - Brill's Studies in the Indigenous Languages of the Americas

Signs, Songs, and Memory in the Andes: Translating Quechua Language and Culture (1989), 233 pages, by Regina Harrison - University of Texas Press

Sounds Like Life: Sound-symbolic Grammar, Performance, and Cognition in Pastaza Quechua (1996), 298 pages, by Janis B. Nuckolls - Oxford University Press

Synoptikós Runasimi (2014), 132 pages, by Jaime Salazar – Independently published

The Morphology and Syntax of Topic and Focus: Minimalist Inquiries in the Quechua Periphery Linguistik Aktuell/linguistics Today (2010) by Sánchez, Liliana - John Benjamins Publishing

The Structure of Evidential Categories in Wanka Quechua (1999) by Rick Floyd - Sil International and the University of Texas

Quechua Dictionaries and Related Materials

Diccionario Quechua Ancashino - Castellano (Spanish Edition) (2019), 292 pages, by Francisco Carranza Romero and Wolf Lustig - Iberoamericana Editorial Vervuert

Diccionario Normalizado Y Comparativo Quechua: Chachapoyas-Lamas (1990) by x Gérald Taylor - Éditions L'Harmattan

Diccionario Quechua y Aymará. Nueva edición. Prólogo Fernando Cajías de la Vega,, 238 pages, by Donato Gómez Bacarreza - Academia Boliviana de Lenguas Nativas

English-Quechua Dictionary (1964), 158 pages, by Gary Parker et al – Cornell University (ERIC website)

Essential English / Spanish / Quechua Dictionary (2016), 520 pages, by John C Rigdon - CreateSpace Independent Publishing

Kechwa-English-Spanish Trilingual Dictionary – Open Educational Resources – University of Kansas

Quechua-Spanish-English Dictionary (2018), 356 pages, by Odi Gonzales, Christine Mladic Janney, et al - Hippocrene Books

Quechua De Huaras, en Espanol y Inglés, Glossario (2012) by Menandra Mosquera - Xlibris Corporation

Webster’s Ecuador Quechua - English Thesaurus Dictionary (2008), 60 pages, by Philip M. Parker - ICON Group International

Quechua Readers, Literature, etc.

18 Poems from the Quechua (1971) by Mark Strand - Halty Ferguson
Ayachucho Reader (1963), 184 pages, by Gary Parker - Cornell University (ERIC website)

Artistic and Rhetorical Patterns in Quechua Legendary Texts (2010) by Agot Bergli - Sil International
Bolivian Quechua Reader and Grammar-Dictionary (1986), circa 400 pages, by Richley H. Crapo and Percy Aitken - Karoma Publishing

Cochabamba Reader (1964), 79 pages, by Yolanda Lastra - Cornell University (ERIC website)

Fabulas Andinas: 15 Fabulas con cuestionario de comprensión e interpretación de texto en runasimi y español (2009) by Willka Wanka - Instituto Qheshwa Jujuymanta, Argentina,

Kechwa Stories – Open Educational Resources – University of Kansas

Looking for Poetry Poems by Carlos Drummond De Andrade and Rafael Alberti and Songs from the Quechua (2002) - Knopf Publishing Group

South Bolivian Quechua New Testament by Wycliffe Bible Translators, Inc
guyome wrote:
… I've played a bit with the Ayacucho* course last year. It gives the reader dialogues and plenty of explanations and drills, but leaves many things unexplained at first, which I found a bit frustrating. Still, it looked like very decent course. Other resources I used:
- Faith come by hearing (New Testament text and audio). For instance here is the Cuzco Quechua translation and the Ayacucho 1987 translation
- Scripture Earth, text and audio of the Old and New Testament (useful feature: you can click anywhere in the text for the audio to start being read from this place)
- She-Calf and Other Quechua Folk Tales, a bilingual collection of Quechua tales and stories (from the Cuzco area, if I remember correctly)
- Ñuqanchik, a daily(?) 30 minutes news segment broadcasted by the Peruvian TV and available on Youtube
     *Ayacucho is a variety of Southern Quechua spoken in the Ayacucho Region, Peru, as well as by immigrants from Ayacucho in Lima

Quechua Culture, Society, History, etc.

Indians of the Andes: Aymaras and Quechuas (2004), 296 pages, by Harold Osborne – Routledge / Taylor & Francis

Linguistica de contacto espanol y quechua en el area andina suramericana / Contact Linguistics Spanish and Quechua in the South American Andean area (2002), 286 pages, by German De Granda Gutierrez - Universidad De Valladolid

Man in the Andes: Multidisciplinary Study of High Altitude Quechua (1976), 512 pages, by Paul T. Baker - Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross

Quechua Media
guyome wrote:
… - Ñuqanchik, a daily(?) 30 minutes news segment broadcasted by the Peruvian TV and available on Youtube

Quechua Miscellany

Aussprachetrainer Quechua (2010) - Reise Know-How Rump Gmbh

List of universities in Peru
It is possible that one, or a number of, Peruvian universities offer courses in Quechua and, if so, would likely have a list of resources which do not appear on the websites of the major American booksellers. Prospective students of the language are invited to contact these institutions directly.
Quechua Language (Homepage) - Barry Lumpkin

Quechua Ayacucho y Cuzco - Culturas de los Andes

Indiana University CeLT Recorded Materials Archive
For reasons of copyright protection, amongst others, access to the Quechua audio recordings on CeLT website is restricted to registered students, staff, members of the faculty and, as far as I understand, to alumni.
National Foreign Language Center (NFLC) – University of Maryland
Presently, there are 97 exercise sets for Listening/Reading practice of Quechua. Access is subject to a monthly subscription of $5.00 which may be cancelled at any time.

Welcome to Quechua (website)

Wikipedia in Quechua

For both Quechua and Aymara, from the Chilean Educación Intercultural; Lenguas y culturas de los pueblos orignarios
Guías Pedagógicas Sector Lengua Indígena Four levels.

So You Want to Learn Quechua? (website)
[size=150]Is It Easy?

In my experience, yes, pretty much. As a linguist I’ve had a go at a dozen or so languages, and in absolute terms Quechua is by far the easiest of them! You may be glad to know that there are:
    [*]no irregular verbs
    [*]no irregular nouns
    [*]no irregular adjectives
    [*]no gender
    [*]no adjective agreements
    [*]no definite or indefinite articles (Quechua’s ‘topic’ and ‘focus’ markers perform something of the same task as articles and intonation in [*]English or Spanish).
    [*]there is a case system, but again it is entirely regular, very simple and easy - much easier than such languages as Latin, Russian, Greek and German - no harder, indeed than English prepositions
Not that Quechua will be a pushover. No language you already may know will be of as much direct help with native Quechua vocabulary, though Spanish will help a lot for the many loan-words. There are a few things you will have to get used to, too, but they shouldn’t put you off, they’re different, not in themselves so difficult. Think of them as an exercise in broadening your mind! It just proves how the way your language, and European languages in general, have of doing things is not at all the only way possible, nor necessarily the best!
    [*]Quechua is an agglutinating language, so typically it has long words built up from a basic root meaning followed by strings of suffixes, but the suffixes are all clear-cut and the long words are actually very easy to form from these logical building-blocks.
    [*]Native Quechua vocabulary will seem quite foreign, of course, though if you speak Spanish this will help with the masses of loan words which have entered Quechua.
    [*]Pronunciation is straightforward too, though Quechua does have a few sounds you probably won’t be used to, particularly uvulars, and if you’re going for the Cuzco and Bolivian dialects these also have ejectives (‘glottalised’) and aspirates. Again, though, these are actually pretty easy to get used to and in no way should put you off!
    [*]Things to watch out for are Quechua’s system of ‘evidentials’ and topic/focus particles   These you may well find the most challenging things in Quechua - but the kickback is that they’re also the most mindbendingly different and most interesting facets of this amazing lingo. (For specific details on these, search for ‘attitude particles’ on, or go to my page on “Quechua - What’s it Like?”).
For more details on Quechua linguistics in general, see my other webpages on it.

Langfocus has a video on Quechua:

Please feel at liberty to post your own recommendations and/or comments and I’ll see what I can do about incorporating them into the lists above.

Visitors to this file are encouraged to review the subsequent comments, posted below, as they include members’ suggestions concerning materials and form a running commentary on resources for the study of this language.

Major revision: April 2020

Senior Member
Joined 3693 days ago

502 posts - 1093 votes 
Studies: German

 Message 2 of 2
05 May 2020 at 12:47am | IP Logged 

Amyra Language
Amyra (also Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes. It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over one million speakers. Aymara, along with Spanish, is an official language of Bolivia. It is also spoken, to a much lesser extent, by some communities in southern Peru and in northern Chile, where it is a recognized minority language. Some linguists have claimed that Aymara is related to its more widely spoken neighbor, Quechua. That claim, however, is disputed. Although there are indeed similarities, like the nearly-identical phonologies, the majority position among linguists today is that the similarities are better explained as areal features rising from prolonged cohabitation, rather than natural genealogical changes that would stem from a common protolanguage.


Amyra Courses: Printed Materials

De Aymara Nomás Siempre Les Hablo: Uso De La Lengua Aymara De Las Autoridades Originarias En El Contexto Comunitario (2019), 164 pages, by Eduardo Lopez Apaza - Editorial Académica Española

Metodo Aymara Qullajaqin Arupa Edition (1985), 215 pages, by Grondin Nadon Marcelo - Editorial Los Amigos del Libro

U.S. Peace Corps Beginning Aymara: A Course for English Speakers (1967), circa 513 pages, by Paul Wexler – University of Washington
Regrettably, the audio recordings, if they ever existed, are not available.

Amyra Courses : Online
This is but a small selection of hits that my Google search “aprender Aymara” yielded. I encourage prospective students to continue searching in this vein and, should they come across something which might be of interest to other students of the language, to appended a comment (including the link) below this list of resources and I will endeavour to add the link to this list.

Curso Basico de la Lengua Aymara : PDF
This link opens a 25-page PDF Spanish language document « Nociones Basicas de la Lengua Aymara »
Curso Basico de la Lengua Aymara - Profesor Teodoro Marka M.

This link opens the Spanish-language Aymara online course “Ciberaymara” to which access is free.
Ciberaymara – Instituto de Lingua y Cultura Aymara (

Jaya mar aru : método para aprender Aymara – There’s no such thing as a free lunch
I have included the link to this Aymara course even though there is apparently no public access to it. Perhaps someone blessed with outstanding diplomatic skills would be able to persuade the administrators to provide free access … you can’t win if you don’t play!
Jaya mar aru : método para aprender aymara – Stanford University

Aymara MOOC on YouTube
This link opens a report on a Spanish-language Aymara MOOC available on YouTube. The LINK to the videos is near the bottom of the page.
Aprender Aymara para entender una cultura - Basilio Mamani – Bolivia Emprende (2015)

Aprende Aymara Cellphone Application
These two links open separate reports on a recently-developed Spanish-language application (Aprende Aymara / Learn Aymara) created by Fabiola Acarapi, a Systems Engineering student at the Bolivian Catholic University. Freely-downloadable from “Play Store”. Consult the articles for the links.
Aprende aymara con una app boliviana - La Razón (Edición Impresa) / Mitsuko Shimose (2018)
App para aprender aimara va por las 10.000 descargas – El Deber (2018)

Aprende Aymara 2.0 for Android
This may, or may not, be the same cellphone application mentioned directly above.     
Aprende Aymara for Android –

Aymar aru yatiqañäni
Looks interesting, but don’t you just hate a tease?
Aymar aru yatiqañäni: manual aymara para poder aprender varias cosas en este año, Apuntes de Lengua y Literatura

Amyra Phrase Books, Language Guides, etc.

Aymara Básico para principiantes (2018), 91 pages, by Román Pairumani Ajacopa- Independently published

Aymara Básico ¡El método fácil para aprender! (projected 2020), 98 pages, by Román Pairumani Ajacopa- Independently published

Aymara express pour voyager en bolivie, au perou et au chili (2011) by Ricardo Mendoza - Editions du Dauphin

Amyra Grammars and Related Materials

A Grammar of Muylaq' Aymara: Aymara As Spoken in Southern Peru (2014), 786 pages, by Matt Coler- Brill Academic Publishing

Aymara Language (undated), 148 pages, by Frederic P. Miller - Alphascript Publishing

Bibliographie des langues aymara et kicua (1951-1956) Four volumes, circa 2,890 pages total , by Paul Rivet et al - Institut d'ethnologie
Clearly, a historical perspective of the languages as opposed to a practical grammar.

Estructura Morfologica Verbal Aymara (1985) by Juan Dios Yapita - Instituto de Lengua y Cultura Aymara

Amyra Dictionaries

Diccionario práctico aymara-castellano, castellano-aymara (8,000 vocablos aymaras) (1987), 288 pages, by Manuel de Lucca D.- Editorial Los Amigos del Libro

Diccionario Quechua y Aymará. Nueva edición. Prólogo Fernando Cajías de la Vega,, 238 pages, by Donato Gómez Bacarreza - Academia Boliviana de Lenguas Nativas

Amyra Readers, Literature, etc.

Aymara “Little Red Ridinghood” with Morphological Analysis by Thomas Sebeok
The title alone makes this book irresistible!

Aymara: Selección de Poemas y Cuentos (2015), 132 pages, by Susana Biondini - CreateSpace Independent Publishing

Aymara Bible / Kollan Arunaca / Bolivia (2011), 1890 pages, - Bible Society

Machaka Testamento (Aymara New Testament) - Sociedades Biblicas en America Latina

Poésie Aymara : Edition Trilingue Français-espagnol-aymara by Félix Layme – Patino

Amyra Culture, Society, History, etc.

Bolivian Aymara Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology (1970), 114 pages, by H. Buechler and J. Buechler - Holt Rinehart & Winston

Desmistificación De La Cultura Aymara (2017) by Noel Coronel Gutiérrez - Palibrio

El Buen Vivir En La Cultura Aymara: Re-creando Esperanzas Y Alternativas Desde Las Heridas Y Cicatrices (2012) by Vicente Alanoca Arocutipa - Omniscriptum Gmbh

Food and culture among Bolivian Aymara: Symbolic expressions of social relations (1987), 294 pages, by Mick Johnsson - Almqvist & Wiksell International

Indians of the Andes: Aymaras and Quechuas (2004), 296 pages, by Harold Osborne – Routledge / Taylor & Francis

Kinship and Seasonal Migration Among the Aymara of Southern Peru: Human Adaptation to Energy Scarcity (2019) by Jane Collins - Dissertation Discovery Company

The Aymara Language in Its Social and Cultural Context: A Collection Essays on Aspects of Aymara Language and Culture (1981), 317 pages, by M. J. Hardman and Martha James Hardman-De-Bautista – University Press of Florida

The Aymara of South America First Peoples (2002) by James Eagen - Lerner Publishing Group

Amyra Miscellany Aymara language articles with links to faithful translations/original versions in Spanish/English, other languages- all human translated. Ideal for parallel texts.

For both Quechua and Aymara, from the Chilean Educación Intercultural; Lenguas y culturas de los pueblos orignarios
Guías Pedagógicas Sector Lengua Indígena Four levels.

Please feel at liberty to post your own recommendations and/or comments and I’ll see what I can do about incorporating them into the lists above.

Visitors to this file are encouraged to review the subsequent comments, posted below, as they include members’ suggestions concerning materials and form a running commentary on resources for the study of this language.

Major revision: April 2020

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